Teavhing Reading Through Scanning Technique to the first year students of SMKN 1 Denpasar in academic year 2006/2007

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

As a developing country Indonesia fairly and unceasingly needs to adopt more and more science and technology from advanced countries. This clearly implies that communication has a very important role to help all people in the world do interaction among themselves. To interact to each other, there are many ways that people can use, one of them is language. One of the languages that is mostly used by people all over the world is English. Both written and spoken means of communication are absolutely necessary for the student in Indonesia. In fact to accelerate and enhance the adoption transfer process of different spheres of science and technology from developing countries, Indonesian students as future scientist should be equipped with communication skill in English because English is an international means of communication.

English is an international language. It is used as a means of communication among nations in the world. Communication is sharing or providing entertainment by listening, reading, speaking and writing. In Indonesia, English as a foreign language has been taught starting from elementary school up to the university or colleges.

New movement in language teaching often begins with the reaction of the old one. At present the method that is recommended in teaching English in Indonesia is a communicative method with the mastery of four major language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing). In communicative language teaching, aims of teaching English are means of oral and written communication.

Language is the concern of everyone by using it in one way or another to communicate with others. It is used everywhere for purposes of vocal or verbal interaction. Using language means to communicate, that is, to transfer a message from the speaker or writer to the listener or to the reader.

Traditional methods of learning a foreign language die hard. As early as 1921, Dr. Harold Palmer, (Alexander L.G practice and progress, 1967: vii) has worked and learned how to use it. Since that time, He great many effective technique have been developed to enable students to learn a foreign language.

Hancock (1987:54) defines the main ideas as “the essence of the paragraph” or rather what the author is trying to get across to the reader. In other words main idea is what the author wants a reader to know about. So, the main idea is the important point that the author develops throughout the paragraph. Then, the function of the entire paragraph is to explain, develop, and support the main idea.

English language students should develop their reading skill in order to be able to read the materials written in English efficiently, that is by utilizing appropriate techniques and strategies for getting good understanding. Through reading activities the students will get a lot of information from different English texts.

In spite of the importance of reading skill, many students still have a lot of problems in reading comprehension. The ability of the students in comprehending a reading text is affected by many factors. Some of them are students’ knowledge, teacher ability, motivation, interest and attention.

Based on what have been stated above, in implementing reading as the focus of teaching activities, English teacher is expected to use appropriate techniques that can help students comprehend the text more easily. The technique that is used by a teacher should be good and relevant to the student’s background knowledge.

The mastery of reading comprehension seems to be one helpful way to find out the most important information in reading text. Therefore, this present study tries to deal with the students’ skill in the mastery of reading comprehension through appropriate reading technique. This is the reason of the writer to choose this topic. The students skill have problem to comprehend reading passage without using appropriate reading technique.

Considering the problems above, the writer decided to use scanning technique to improve the students’ skill in reading comprehension. The research of this study was carried out at SMKN 1 Denpasar. According to the result of the interview with one of the English teachers, it was explicated that the ability of the first year students in reading comprehension was still very low.

Among the four language skills, the researcher will discus about reading skill, because it is very important for the students. Having a good reading skill the students should surely be able to read different texts fluently and effectively.

1.2 Statement of Research Question

Based on the explanation of the background of the study, the research question of this action study can be formulated as follows: “to what extent the students’ reading ability is improved through scanning technique?”

1.3 The Purpose of the Study

Methodology speaking, any scientific investigation intends to answer the research question that has been previously formulated and determined. In line with this rationale, The purposes of this research study is to find out effectiveness of scanning technique in improving the reading ability of the first year students of SMKN 1 Denpasar.

1.4 Limitation of the Study

On account of this fact, challenges related to reading ability faced by the subject of this study are definitely too broad and complex to be dealt with in a single study. Accordingly, in the present classroom action study the researcher, while acknowledging that there are many other useful strategies, limits his investigation on improving reading ability of the second grade students of SMKN 1 Denpasar through scanning technique.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The result of this study are hoped to give both practical and theoretical importance. Practically they are intended as imperative feedback to the students under study about how importance the mastery of reading which is will be thought by reading in this action study.

Theoretically, they are expected to contribute some supports to the existing similar research findings. The findings of this action study are also intended to provide and give how teach reading to the students of SMKN 1 Denpasar.

1.6 Assumption

Because of the limitation of the time, finance, and investigator’s ability, not all variable can be controlled. In order to neutralize the compounding variables, it is essential to state some assumption as follows: firstly, all samples under investigation are assumed to have learnt English for the same period of time. Secondly, the instruments used for collecting data are constructed in such a way that they are supposed to be valid and reliable.

1.7 Hypothesis

A working hypothesis is formulated in an attempt to give a tentative solution to the problem dealt with in this study. Since the chief concern of the present study is try to give solution on the problem dealt with in this research, it is hypothesized that there is a significant positive correlation between the mastery of reading comprehension through scanning technique ability in English of the first year students of SMKN 1 Denpasar.

1.8 Definition of Key Terms

To avoid misunderstanding on the part of the readers, there are some key terms, which need to be operationally defined as follow:

1.8.1        Reading

Reading is defined as the meaningful interpretation of printed written verbal symbols. It means that reading is a result of the interaction between the perception of graphic symbols that represents language and the readers’ language skills, cognitive skill, and knowledge of the world. In this process, the reader tries to recreate the meanings intended by the writer. (Nutal, 1982; in Gloria, 1988: 14)

1.8.2        Scanning

Scanning can be defined as a technique to improve the students reading ability of the first year students of SMKN 1 Denpasar especially in getting specific information from the reading material.

1.9 Theoretical Framework

The present investigation is based on the following theoretically   frame work:

1)            Conception of reading comprehension

2)            Kinds of reading

3)            The important of teaching reading

4)            Technique of teaching reading through scanning

5)            Assessment of reading

CHAPTER II

RIVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Conception of Reading Comprehension

Reading is an activity of process of transferring or decoding from the written to oral form. Therefore, reading involves obtaining meaning from printed or written symbol or understanding the meaning it carries. Dallman in Sri (2005: 25) argue that reading involves more than recognition; that comprehension is an essential of reading; that without comprehension no reading takes place; that in reading the readers reacts to what is recorded in writing; that his reaction is determined to a considerable extent by his past experience, both first hand and vicarious; that what the reader brings to the page is at times as significant to reading as what is actually written on it; that reading instruction should be given both to assist an individual in the acquisition of reading skills and concurrently to help him acquire the reading habit of value to him as an individually and as a member of society.

Harris and Sipay (1971) in Alit Fitriani (2005: 8) state that reading is the meaningful interpretation of printed of verbal symbols. In order to get the meaning of printed of verbal symbols, the reader should identify, recognize, and interpret them, so as to produce comprehension, which constitutes the objective of reading. In reading, we only obtained meaning through linguistic features written in the text.

Smith in Yuginarta (2001: 21) says that reading is a matter of “decoding” printed symbol into sound and then extending meaning from sound. Decoding is a decisive component of the integral reading act. In effect, decoding initiates the interpretation process. Through decoding, the readers arrives at the literal meaning of the textual statements (words and sentences) constructed by the writer, and literal meaning serves as the vehicle for conveying higher (or deeper) levels of meaning.

Carrol in Koroh (2006: 9) notes that, the “essential” skill in reading is getting meaning from a printed or written message. In my ways, this is similar to getting meaning from a ‘spoken’ message, but there are differences, because the cues are different. Spoken message contains that cues are not evident in printed message, and conversely. In either case, understanding language is it self a tremendous feat, when one thinks about it. When you get a meaning of verbal message, you have not only recognized the words themselves; You have interpreted in their particular grammatical functions, and you have somehow apprehended the general grammatical patterning of each sentence, assigning meanings to the key words in the sentence. He also writes that the process of reading is not learned as a total unitary response. It is not learned all at once, and numerous components and each component have to be learned and practiced.

Smith (1985: 100) writes that the words reading is no different from other common words in our language, it has a multiplicity of meanings, and since the meaning of the word on any particular occasion will depend largely on the context in which it occurs, the term reading is undoubtedly within the repertoire of all people. In spite of this fact, the researcher believes that the true conception of reading might not yet have been understood clearly.

Coady in Koroh (2006: 10) has elaborated on the basic psycholinguistic model and has suggested a model in which the EFL/ESL reader’s background knowledge interacts with conceptual abilities and process strategies, more or less successfully, to produce comprehension. By conceptual ability, Coady means general intellectual capacity. By processing strategies, he means various subcomponents of reading ability, including many, which is also more general language processing skills, which also apply to oral language.

Simanjuntak (198: 3) writes that reading is the process of putting the reader in contact and communication with ideas. Reading is a multilevel interactive process: that is, text must be analyzed at various levels, whit units of analysis going from the letters to the text as a whole. In Encarta, chall (2003: 2) urged that reading is an activity characterized by the translation of symbols, or letters, into word and sentences that have meaning to the individual. The ultimate goal of reading is to be able to understand written material, to evaluate it, and to use it for one’s needs. Dallman (1982: 165) explain that because of the complexity of the reading process and the incompleteness of existing knowledge to the nature of the reading act, the definition of reading are quite numerous and diversified.

Long and Richards in Bili (2006: 16) state that the purposes of reading is depend first of all on having a purpose for reading, knowing why you are reading a text. The purpose could be a very general one like reading a novel for pleasure or escape; on the other hand, it could be very specific like looking up a telephone directory for somebody’s number or address. The purpose will usually determine the appropriate type of reading and the relevant reading skills to be used.

2.2 Kinds of Reading

In reference to the conception of reading highlighted in the preceding discussions, there are two kinds of reading discussed under this heading, there are: (1) intensive reading, (2) extensive reading.

A brief discussion of these two types of reading is presented in the following section.

2.2.1 Intensive Reading

Christina in Alit Fitriani (2005: 13) writes that in intensive reading the students should extract specific information from the reading texts. This kind of reading is more an accuracy activity involving reading for details. The objective of intensive reading is developing the ability to decode meanings or messages by drawing on both syntactical and lexical clues. Hence, the primary concern and emphasis as in all reading is on skill for recognition rather than for production of languages features. This implies that reading is a receptive skill. Therefore, in intensive reading a control from the teacher is compulsory to help students for elucidation of structure difficulties and the extension of vocabulary.

Rivers in Alit Fitriani (2005: 13) states that in intensive reading the students should extract from printed symbols and patterns three levels of meanings, namely: lexical meanings (the semantic content of the word expression) structural or grammatical meanings (deriving from interrelationships among words or parts of words from order of words) socio-cultural meanings (of texts which people of their own culture attached to the words and groups of words they are reading).

This suggested in order comprehending any reading text, the students should be able to recognize with case particular word used in the text which clarify the structural function of other words close to them and words which denote logical relationship among different segments of sentences. Hence, it is of course not enough for the students to know, to which the words, such as chain, tasks, disease and grapes, refer to, or simply to know the merits to which such word as, charming, lunatic, beautiful, and nepotism, refer to but more importantly they must know and grasp very exhaustively the meaning carried by various cohesive and linking devices which the language uses to construct utterances and sentences with such content and function words. The ability to grasp and draw on different lexical cues and structural devices and linkages facilitate the students to rapidly extract meaning from the texts.

2.2.2 Extensive Reading

Richard and friends (1991:133) write that in the extensive reading that is generally at a slower speed and requites a higher degree of understanding that in extensive reading. In extensive reading, reading is in quantity and in order to again a general understanding of what is read. It is intended to develop good reading habits. To build up knowledge of vocabulary and structure also encourage a like for reading.

Dalman, M (1978: 115) states the extensive reading is a fluency activity mainly including global understanding of longer reading text. Extensive reading activities are usually done for one’s pleasure/ enjoyment for example, in daily life our reading objective constantly varies, when planning exercises.

So from that view, we can conclude reading text are usually divided into two types, namely extensive and intensive reading, to improve reading speed. The way to gain reading texts we can use many techniques. Two of them are:

  1. Scanning

Richard and frieds (1991:322) states that scanning is type of speed-reading technique which is used when the reader wants to located a particular piece of information without necessarily understanding the rest of a text or passage and the reader can study the text in more the detail. Reading more slowly and carefully and looking for specific information that they are interested (Addison, in http://www.rhlschool.com.1999)

According to spencer as cited in Webster revised unabridged dictionary (1998) states that scanning is the type of reading when reader wants to mount by steps to go through step by steps.

In scanning, the reader wants to examine closely using a regular plan or fixed without making a search for something looking at quickly without careful reading is often looking for a particular thing (Quirk and friend 1998, 931) from “the American Heritages Dictionary” of the English language (2000). We can find that scanning is the type of reading when reader wants to exam closely to look over quickly and systematically of left through hastily.

  1. Skimming

Webster’s revised Unabridged Dictionary (1996). States that skimming is the type of reading which is used by reading or examining superficially and rapidly in order to cull the principal facts Dr. Thoughts from the American Heritage Dictionary of the English language (2000) we can find that skimming is the type of reading which is used to read or glance trough (a book for example) quickly or superficially.

Merriam Webster dictionary online (2001:376) it is states that skimming is the type or reading that is used to read, study or examine superficially and rapidly, especially to glance through a book for a chief ideas or the plot.

So, from that view, we can conclude that skimming is the type of reading which is used when the readers want to study the text only to get the texts main idea by reading quickly without pausing to steady the details.

2.3 The Importance of Teaching Reading

Dykstra (in Heilman, 1982; of Yuginarta) writes that teaching probably the most important variable in determining beginning reading achievement. Much of student’s success in beginning reading is accounted for the instructional procedure found in the classroom. The ultimate the objective of teaching reading comprehension is to help the students promote and enhance their reading competence or reading skill in the target language.

In teaching reading comprehension, teacher needs to design comprehension activities that correspond to the purpose of the reading. Ommagio (in Margiani, 2001:2004) writes that reading comprehension activities should be designed in such a way so as to help the students to develop the following specific reading skill:

  1. Recognizing the scrip of a language.
  2. Deducing the meaning and use of unfamiliar vocabulary.
  3. Understanding information that is stated explicitly.
  4. Understanding relationship between sentences.
  5. Understanding implications not explicitly stated.
  6. Understanding relationship between the part of the text through cohesive devices, both grammatical and lexical.
  7. Identifying the main point or the most important information contained by the text.
  8. Distinguishing the main idea from supporting details.
  9. Extracting the main points in order to summaries.

10.  Understanding the communicative value and function of the text or passage.

Phillips (in Ambarawati, 1998: 30) states that the whole range of the reading proficiency can be achieved. Philips has developed a five-stage plan for teaching reading skills that can be used either in the classroom or an individualized instructional setting. The five stages include: (1) transferable/ integration, (2) Comprehension stage, (3) decoding/ intensive reading or preparation stage, (4) Scanning stage, and (5) pre-teaching or preparation stage.

  1. Transferable/ integrating skill. In this final stage of teaching reading, Exercise should be used that help students go beyond confines of the specific passage to enhance reading skill and effective reading strategies themselves. Exercise that encourage contextual guessing, selective reading for main ideas, appropriate dictionary usage, effective reading stage to confirm hypotheses are among those identified as especially helpful in this final stage.
  2. Comprehension stage. In this stage, comprehension checks of various sorts are made to determine if the students have achieved their reading objectives. Philips argues that reading comprehension should not confound the reading skill with the other skill, such as writing, listening, or speaking if they are considered pure test of reading comprehension check should project the readers through several phases of the reading.
  3. Decoding / intensive reading stage. Philips (in Ambarawati, 1998: 32) contends that this stage is most necessary when students are learning to read rather reading to learn. Decoding involves guessing from context the meaning of unknown words or phrases and may be needed at the word or discourse level. Readers need to be thought not only how to guest the meaning of context words, but also how to interpret the force or connectors, determine the relationships among sentences of the sentences elements, and so on. The extent of decoding that will go on in this stage will depend on the purpose for reading a given passage. Fluency and rapid understanding are the most command objectives in reading, and it is only when comprehension is impendent by unknown words, complex structure, or unfamiliar concepts that skilled readers report to decoding.
  4. Scanning stage. These steps are distinct processes. Skilled readers do some scanning while attempting to skim a text. The students need to practice how to use of scanning techniques in reading comprehension. Some of the practice activities required for this stage include :
    1. Getting the gist of short readings, paragraph, or other graphic material.
    2. Identifying topic sentences and main ideas.
    3. Selecting the best paragraph from multiple-choice options of the main ideas of a text or of the conclusion.
    4. Matching subtitles with paragraphs.
    5. Filling in charts of form with key concepts.
    6. Creating titles or headlines for passages.
    7. Making global judgments or reacting in some global fashion to a reading passage.
  5. Pre teaching or preparation stage. This essential first step helps develop skills in anticipation and prediction for the reading of graphic material. Some of reading activities included in this stage; (a) Brainstorming to generate ideas that have a high probability of occurrence in the text; (b) Looking at visual headlines, titles, chart or other contextual aids that are provided with the text, and (c) Predicting or hypothesizing on the basis of the title or first line of the text what significance it might have or what might come next.

2.4 Teaching Reading through Scanning

Brown in Simanjuntak (1987: 2) advocated hat motivation is the key to being successful in learning. Motivation is commonly understood as an inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves one the particular action. One of the ways to motivate students to read is through implementing the right techniques in teaching reading. In line with the present study, the researcher made use of scanning technique in improving the students’ reading ability.

Scanning consists of quickly searching for some particular piece or pieces of information in a text. Scanning exercises may ask students to look for names or dates, to finds a definition of a key concept, or to list a certain number of supporting details. The purpose of the scanning is the extract certain specific information without reading through the whole text. For academic English scanning is absolutely essential. In vocational or general English, scanning is important in dealing with genres like schedules, manuals, forms, etc.

2.4.1 Teaching Procedure of Teaching Reading Comprehension Through Scanning Technique

One of the simple examples of the procedure which can be conducted to improve the student’s comprehension through scanning technique is as the following:

No.

Procedure

Activity

Time

1

Pre-activity 1. Greeting

2. The teacher ask the students some questions related to the reading text while showing the students pictures related to the text.

10 minutes

2

Whilst activity
  1. The teacher ask the students to work in pairs or in groups of four
  2. The teacher distribute the question or exercises of the reading text and ask the students to study them
  3. The teacher distribute the reading text and ask the students to read it carefully first
  4. The teacher ask the student to discuss the answer of the question or the exercises with their group
  5. The teacher monitor the class
  6. General discussion of the answer

3

Post-activity
  1. Post-test. Some extra exercises may be given for homework
  2. The teacher end the class
20 minutes

The length of time for each scanning activity depends on the reading text (the length of the text, degree of difficulty, type of reading exercises or assignment, etc).

The scanning activity is a useful skill to locate a specific item (s) of information that we need, such as a date, a figure, or a name. In scanning we focus our research only on the information we are looking for and where to find it.

2.4.2 Group Discussion in Teaching Reading Comprehension through Scanning Teaching

Harmer (1991:245) writes that group discussion is an extremely attractive strategy for a number of reasons: the student talking time is increased, it gives the students more opportunities to really use the language to communicate the language to communicate with each other, students will experience both teaching and learning in the group, thereby exhibiting a degree of self-reliance that simply is not possible when the teacher is acting as the controller.

Ur (1981:7 – 9) writes that there are some advantages of small groups work, they are as follow: The first advantages of small groups work is of course the increased the participation. If we have five or six groups, then there will be five or six times the amount of talking. Class discussion, as has been pointed out, are very wasteful in term of the ration of teacher or students-effort and time to actual language practice taking place; group discussion are relatively efficient. Moreover, this heightened participation is not limited to those who are usually articulate anyway; Students who are shy of saying something in from of the whole class, or to the teacher, often find it much easier to express themselves in front of a small group of their peers.

The second advantage is the motivations of participants also improve when they work in small groups. This is partly a function of the release from inhabitation described above, but other factors also play a part. The physical focus of the discussion is close and direct towards the individual student; that is to say, whoever is speaking is only a small distance away, clearly audible, facing the others and addressing them personally.

2.5 Assessment of Reading

Assessment of reading can be carried out by administering a series of tests. Tests may be constructed primary as devices to reinforce learning to motivate the student of primary as a means of assessing the students’ performance in the language, in this reading comprehension (Heaton: 1988: 5). In relation to this study the researcher will focus on testing the students’ performance in reading comprehension when scanning technique is conducted. The researcher anticipates that the tests will give objective feedback for both students and the researcher.

Evaluation of assessment is the determination of the worth of something Worthern and Sanders in Koroh (2006: 25). It is an attempt to determine if some product, process, activity, or procedure is of value or is satisfactory, Included in evaluation is the act of asking questions about the issue to be evaluated, determining what is “valuable” or “of worth”, gathering objective and reliable information about the issue, and assessing the worth of whatever is at issue.

Evaluation is one of the most important aspects in teaching language. It comes to the final step of the teaching-learning process. At the three stages of teaching-learning activity, evaluation comes at the post-activity.

Objective tests need to be confined to particular skills or elements. Gillet and Temple (1986: 316 – 317) write that three are two qualities that every test should possess; reliability, the degree of consistency of the test, and validity, the degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.

Heaton (1998:107) explain that three are numerous ways of testing reading comprehension ranging from multiple-choice items to open-ended questions. Although multiple-choice items are sometimes the most suitable instrument for testing reading comprehension, they should not be open-used. Frequently other item types are for more interesting and useful. The text itself should always determine the types of question which are constructed. Certain texts may lend themselves to multiple-choice items, others to true/ false, others to matching items, others to arrangement items, others to ordinary completion items, others to completion of the information in a table, and yet others to open-ended questions. Sometimes the same text will demand at least two or three different types of items.

Reading evaluation subsumes the functions of reading assessment. Reading assessment includes all means of gathering data about the students’ past, current, or future reading performance. It also includes all means of gathering observations about the function of the reading program and its personnel. Reading assessment incorporates reading testing, which the students must respond with appropriate behavior to a controlled stimulus (generally written) and response is systematically recorded and compared with the performance of others on the same test or evaluated against some predetermined criteria of component performance. Reading measurement of that quantification of the observation gathered through reading assessment. Such quantification facilitates the processing and analyzing of the data and encourages greater accuracy and objectivity in evaluation decision making.

Hill in (Kariasa 2005: 29), further remarks that a direct, intimate relationship should exists between reading instructional objectives, instructional content, and reading evaluation. Data obtained through reading evaluation enable the teacher of staff to determine whether the objectives are being met. If they are not, evaluation can provide leads concerning why not, whether the problems lies with the instructional programs or with the objectives themselves. If the objectives are being met, an evaluation confirms that and aids I the development of the next set of the developmental objectives. Evaluation can relate most directly and meaningfully to instructional objectives when both are stated in terms of desired students’ behavioral products.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

This research project was in the form of action study. This study was intended to improve the students’ reading comprehension by using scanning technique. This design consisted of 4 (four) phases namely: planning, action, observation and reflection.

This action study was divided into two cycles. In both cycle the students are thought reading comprehension through scanning technique. This action study was conducted and intended to get mean score at least 7, 00 as the target of research. After conducting the two cycles it was hoped that there was an improvement on the students’ achievement, and the target could be achieved.

The activity of teaching and learning processes includes the planning, action, observation and reflection. To make it clear, the design of the present class action study can be depicted as the following:

Cycle I  IR  P1 A1 O1 R1

Cycle II  RP  A2 O2  R2

Brief and comprehensible discussions concerning the whole activities carried out in each session from P, A, O, and R are devoted in the subsequent discussions and for details of teaching scenarios of the present class action study.

3.2 Subject of the Study

The subject of this study was the class II of SMKN 1 Denpasar in academic year 2006/2007, with the total of twenty five students’ altogether, consisting of males.

3.2.1 Planning

Planning is one of crucial component in teaching English. Without good planning, any teaching and learning activities will be impossible to achieve the objectives as follows:

  1. Designing and administering the pre-test on comprehension of text to the students to diagnose the students’ weakness.
  2. Designing the implementing teaching learning scenarios.
  3. Planning the students worksheet for the reading comprehension
  4. Constructing post-test materials to be performed at the end of the meeting of each cycle.

3.2.2 Action

Action referred to what the researcher did in the classroom and how the class was managed. Each of this study was related to what the researcher had planned in the lesson plan. In relation to improving the comprehension of the first year students, there were three main activities the researcher did as realization of the lesson plan stated in plan, namely: pre-activity, whilst-activity, and post-activity.

In pre-activity, the researcher focused on the students’ interest by giving leading question related to the topic being discussed. And then reading text was given. In the whilst-activity, the researcher gives the reading text the students and asked them to discuss and did the task either in pairs or group based or reading text given. In the post-activity the researcher give the post test and ask them to do it individually.

3.2.3 Observation

Classroom activities had to be observed while doing the action in order to know the effectiveness’ of teaching learning process, whether or not the technique could improve the students’ achievement. It was also determined if there was any change in the students’ behavior and activity in reading class and how far the action reached the target.

3.2.4 Reflection

After doing the three steps in the action research, reflection was another important thing to do the result of which would be compared with the result of the observation. The finding in each meeting and the result of the test were used as an input to improve the next action in the next cycle. The research had to find the reason why the treatment was no optimally successfully in solving the students’ problem and the research had minimize and solve the problem faced by the students in order to get a better result in the future action.

3.3 Instrumentation

In order to collect the intended data, this study made use of the following instrumentation: 1). Teaching Learning Scenario, 2). Reading Text, 3). Questionnaire, and 4) Reading test.

3.3.1 Teaching Learning Scenario

The teacher’s scenario was prepared in order to have a clear description to what action to be conducted in the classroom. It was a guideline for the teacher in conducting every step of the teaching allotment, the teacher’s approach and the material used in the teaching and learning process.

3.3.2 Reading Text

There were several reading texts used in this study, all texts are completed with exercises and test, this includes pre-test and post-test.

Pre-test was used to examine the students’ ability in reading comprehension before the treatment was given. The result of pre-test was used as a reference for conducting the research.

Post test were used to examine the effectiveness or the result of the action both in cycle 1 and 2. In other words, post-test was used in order to know the extent to which the technique can improve the students’ reading comprehension.

3.3.3 Questionnaire

Questionnaire was given at the end of the study in order to get the subject response toward the use of scanning. Each questionnaire consists of twenty questions. The response of the students in questionnaire was in the form of objective test.

3.3.4 Reading Test

To make this study more qualified, the researcher used five reading texts here, where one text was used as pre-test, the other were used as exercises and post test in cycle 1 and 2. On this study, the pre-test was applied to know the students’ ability in reading comprehension before pre-questioning was applied in teaching reading comprehension. Later, the researcher would use the result of this pre-test as a reference in conducting the research.

Meanwhile the post–test was used to examine the effectiveness of pre-questioning treatments, both in cycle 1 and 2. It can also be said that the post-test were used to know how far the pre-questioning was able improve the students’ ability in reading comprehension.

3.4 Data Collection

In measuring the students’ reading comprehension, the researcher used productive test, which is question an answer test which were administered at the end of every session, the test were in the form of comprehension item test.

The process of collecting data was as follow: firstly, before the teaching was carried out, the students were given pre-test. This was conducted in order to find the initial reflection as well as to see the problem they faced. They were tasted individually and suggested to answer ten questions (ten items). Finally, at the end of every unit lesson, or after the students were given treatment that dealt with using scanning technique to improve the ability in reading comprehension, they were given a post-test to find out the result of the action.

3.5 Data Analysis

The data obtained for the present classroom action study was analyzed descriptively so as to reveal the extent of the subjects’ progress in increasing ability in reading comprehension. That was, the mean score obtained by the subjects in the IR (Xo) was compared with its corresponding mean scores in reflections or post-test for both cycle I and cycle II. The score showing the subjects’ positive changing behaviors were computed in the form of percentages, which referred to respective items on the questionnaire. To make it clear, the comparative corresponding means between IR and reflection scores were also presented in the form of block graphs. The grand mean of the cycle I and cycle II was finally computed and compared. The grand mean of both cycles, cycle I and cycle II was calculated by totaling the means of the scores in each cycle and then divided by four.

The amount of the different between the two means would show the increasing effectiveness of cycle I and cycle II. To make it clear, the formula used to analyze the obtained data can be drawn as the following:

Where:  M       = Mean

X        = Sum of score

N        = Sum of individuals

Then the data were analyzed in percentage using the following formula:

  1. The average score of each student will be counted using this formula:

Total of the right answers

Mean =                                                            X 100%

Total of test items

  1. The average of the whole students will be counted using this formula:

Total score of all test takers

Mean =                                                            X 100%

Total of test takers

The student’s achievement will be calculated into the following criteria:

Excellent : Those students who are able to answer the test items between 80% – 100% correctly.
Good : Those students who are able to answer the test items between 70% – 79% correctly.
Fair : Those students who are able to answer the test items between 60% – 69% correctly.
Poor : Those students who are able to answer the test items between 50% – 59% correctly.
Failure : Those students who are able to answer the test items between 0% – 49% correctly.

CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 Data

There are some of instruments used to collect the data of the present classroom action study; they were pre- test, post-test and questionnaires. Thus, the data required to answer the research question were gathered through administering pre-test, post-test and questionnaires to class I students of SMKN 1 Denpasar. The pre-test of IR was administered to the subject under study to obtain their pre-existing ability in scanning, in pre-test the subject were asked to answer 10 productive test items to determine their ability in scanning post-test or reflection was administered for eight times (four times in cycle I and four times in cycle II). As a result, there were nine sets of raw scores obtained for the present classroom action study, that was, IR or pre-test scores, and reflection scores for all session (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, and S8). The nine sets of scores collected were tabulated as the following.

Figure 1

Tabulation of Data Showing the subjects’ Progressing Scores in Reading Comprehension through Scanning Technique

Subject

IR

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

2

3

4

6

5

6

6

6

6

4

5

6

6

7

6

7

8

8

3

3

6

6

5

6

8

7

7

5

6

6

6

6

7

7

6

7

3

4

7

6

7

6

7

8

7

3

5

4

7

6

7

8

7

7

5

6

7

6

7

6

7

6

7

4

4

4

8

7

7

7

8

7

3

6

7

6

7

8

7

8

8

3

6

7

6

7

8

7

8

8

6

6

7

7

6

8

7

8

8

2

3

6

6

8

8

6

7

8

6

6

7

6

8

7

8

8

9

3

5

6

7

6

7

7

8

8

3

4

5

6

6

7

7

7

7

3

4

6

6

7

7

7

7

7

2

4

5

7

6

7

8

8

6

2

6

5

7

7

8

8

8

6

3

6

6

8

8

7

6

6

7

4

5

5

6

7

7

7

7

7

2

3

6

6

6

7

8

8

7

3

4

5

5

6

5

7

6

6

6

7

7

8

7

8

7

7

9

6

7

8

8

7

6

8

7

8

3

4

7

6

7

8

7

8

8

Total

89

122

149

162

166

174

179

182

183

Further data required for the present class action study were collected through administering questionnaires to the subject under study at the end cycle I. the answer of the questionnaires were quantitatively score using the rating scale 0 – 3. The score gathered from administering questionnaires showed the subjects’ changing attitudes and motivation. The obtained data showing the subjects’ total scores for items of the questionnaires are tabulated as the following:

Figure 2

Tabulation of Data Showing the Subjects’ Changing Motivation and Attitudes in Learning Reading Comprehension through Scanning Technique

No.

A

B

C

D

  1. 1.

14

9

2

0

  1. 2.

17

5

3

0

  1. 3.

11

10

4

0

  1. 4.

20

3

2

0

  1. 5.

14

8

3

0

  1. 6.

17

5

3

0

  1. 7.

17

6

2

0

  1. 8.

14

8

3

0

  1. 9.

18

3

4

0

10.

11

9

5

0

11.

14

6

5

0

12.

14

5

6

0

13.

20

3

2

0

14.

20

3

2

0

15.

17

5

3

0

16.

17

6

2

0

17.

11

8

6

0

18.

10

9

6

0

19.

14

5

6

0

20.

14

6

5

0

Total

304

122

74

0

4.2 Data Analysis

As mentioned previously. There were nine sets of raw scores, which showed the students’ progress in reading comprehension when they were thought through scanning technique. These data should be analyzed and then the result s of the analysis is to be discussed. Before the above data were analyzed, they are first of all tabulated as the follow:

Figure 3

Tabulation of the Data the Frequency Distribution of Initial Reflection (IR) and post-Test Scores in Reading Comprehension through Scanning Technique

Pretest

Cycle I

Cycle II

S0

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

X0

F

X1

F1

X2

F2

X3

F3

X4

F4

X5

F5

X6

F6

X7

F7

X8

F8

6

4

7

2

8

1

8

4

8

3

8

7

8

7

8

12

9

2

5

2

6

8

7

8

7

5

7

12

7

11

7

15

7

8

8

8

4

3

5

4

6

8

6

15

6

8

6

6

6

3

6

5

7

11

3

11

4

7

5

5

5

1

5

2

5

1

5

5

6

4

2

5

3

4

4

3

4

4

4

4

4

5

1

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

4

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

Where              :

S          = Session

X         = Scores of the Students

F          = Frequency Distribution

From the above data, now the mean of the Initial Reflection scores () and the means of the reflection scores (,,,,,,,) obtained by the subjects for cycle I and Cycle II can be computed as follow:

  1. The  of initial reflection scores           =
  2. The  of reflection scores                      =
  3. The  of reflection scores                     =
  4. The   of reflection scores                    =
  5. The  of reflection scores                     =
  6. The  of reflection scores                     =
  7. The  of reflection scores                     =
  8. The  of reflection scores                     =
  9. The  of reflection scores                     =

The grand mean of the reflection scores in Cycle I is:

The grand mean of the reflection scores in Cycle Ii is:

The results of the above analysis were considered as the findings of the present classroom action study, which could be summarized as the following figure:

Figure 4

Summary of the Research Finding Showing the Mean of each Session and the Grand Mean for Cycle I and Cycle II

Initial Reflection

SO                =      3.56

Grand Mean

Cycle I

S1                =      4.88

S2                =      5.96

S3                =      6.48

S4                =      6.64

Cycle II

S5                =      6.96

S6                =      7.16

S7                =      7.28

S8                =      7.32

The additional supporting data were collected by means of administering questionnaires by the end of cycle I to the subject under study. The data obtained form the questionnaires have to be computed and then discussed. The computation of the comparative percentages from the score of the items of the questionnaires showing the subjects’ total answers for the item of A,B,C, and D were shown as follow:

  1. Total percentage of item A
  2. Total percentage of item A
  3. Total percentage of item A
  4. Total percentage of item A

As shown clearly in figure 4 that the findings of this classroom action study are; first, the mean of the pre-test or IR scores  obtained by class I students was 3.56. This showed obviously the law ability of the subjects under study. Second, the mean of the reflection or post-test scores of cycle I (S1, S2, S3, and S4) obtained by the subjects under study showed the mean figures of 4.88, 5.96, 6.48, and 6.64. The mean figure obtained by the subjects for each session was comparatively higher than the mean figure or the IR scores. Third, the means of the reflection or post-test scores for cycle II (S5, S6, S7, and S8) obtained by the subjects under study pointed out the mean figures of 6.69, 7.16, 7.28, and 7.32. This mean figure showed that each session of cycle II was still comparatively much higher than the mean figure of the IR scores.

The grand mean obtained by the subjects under study for both cycle I and Cycle II which showed the grand mean figures of;  were realistically much higher than their corresponding pre-test mean scores. The grand mean of cycle II was also realistically much higher than the grand mean cycle I. The different of the grand figure of cycle I and Cycle II was 1.19. The difference was clearly significant. Obviously, the finding of the present classroom action study discovered that the ability of the students of Class I of SMKN 1 Denpasar in reading comprehension was improved significantly from session to session after they had been thought through scanning technique.

The result of the analysis of the questionnaire scores showed the comparative percentages of 60.8%, 24.4%, 14.8% and 0% for the total responses of the questionnaires items of options A,B,C, and D. These findings undoubtedly supported the main findings of the present classroom action study. Clearly, the obtained comparative percentages of the items of the questionnaires indicated the subjects’ positive changing attitudes and motivation in reading comprehension through scanning technique. These findings also convincingly proved the effectiveness of scanning technique in teaching reading comprehension.

To make it clear, the main findings of the present classroom action study, that was, the increasing comparative mean figures of the IR score and the post-test scores obtained by class I students of SMKN 1 Denpasar for cycle I and cycle II can be graphically presented as the following:

M

e

a

n                                                                                  Cycle I

Figure5. Graph depicting the subjects’ progressing ability in reading comprehension through scanning technique.

M

e

a

n

Cycle II

Figure6. Graph depicting the subjects’ progressing ability in reading comprehension through scanning technique

.

M

e

a

n                                                                              Cycle I and II

Figure6. Graph depicting the subjects’ progressing ability in reading comprehension through scanning technique

M

e

a

n

Figure 7, Graph showing the subjects’ attitude and motivation in learning reading comprehension through scanning technique.

4.3 Discussions of the Findings

The data analysis, which established the findings of the present classroom action study, showed that the mean of the IR or pre-test scores (X0) obtained by the subjects under study in reading comprehension pointed out the mean figure of 3.56. This mean figure clearly showed that the ability of the subjects under study was relatively low. Knowing that reading was one of important language skill, there for this problem had to be immediately solved, it was hard to find out why the ability of the students in reading comprehension was relatively low as there was many factors deal with it.

The result of the data analysis of the reflection scores in cycle I (S1, S2, S3, and S4) showed the increasing mean figures of 4.88, 5.96, 6.48, and 6.64. The mean figure obtained by the subjects under study for each session in cycle I was obviously much higher than the mean figure of the IR scores. Te grand mean figure of the reflection of post-test scores obtained by the subjects under study in cycle I was 5.99. It was much higher than the mean figure of the IR scores. This grand mean figure for cycle I showed the obvious improvement of the students’ ability in reading comprehension through scanning technique.

The results of the data analysis of the reflection of post-test scores obtained by the subjects under study for cycle II (S5, S6, S7, and S8) pointed out the increasing mean figures of 6.96, 7.16, 7.28, and 7.32 compared with the mean figure of IR scores, the mean figure obtained by the subjects for each session was convincingly much higher than the IR mean figure. The grand mean figure of the reflection or post-test scores obtained by the subjects under study in cycle I was 5.99 and in cycle II was 7.18. There is a significant difference of 1.19 between the main figure of cycle I and cycle II. The different of the mean figure suggested that the teaching of reading comprehension in cycle II (S5, S6, S7, and S8) was more effective than that in cycle I. This was due to the fact that cycle II was a revised version of cycle I, in that the teaching scenarios or the lesson plans in cycle II were accordingly revised by taking into account the weakness found out in cycle I. consequently, the grand mean of the reflection scores in cycle II was much higher than that in cycle I.

The comparative percentage figures of the total response of the questionnaire for items A, B, C, and D are 60.8%, 24.4%, 14.8%, and 0%. This figure proved that the subjects’ learning the behaviors changed positively, that was, their attitudes and motivation heightened significantly. This also indicated that teaching reading comprehension through scanning technique could make active and creative participation and involvement of the subjects under study. This means that the students’ ability in English will be gradually improved.

The findings of the present classroom action study was in line with the existing research findings, which had revealed the effectiveness of scanning in teaching reading comprehension, in relation to the objective of the present classroom action study, although the findings of the present class action study could not be generalized to all second year students of different classes belonging to all first year students of different classes belonging to the same school, in this case SMKN 1 Denpasar, however, based on the findings of the present classroom action, it was suggested that the English teachers at SMKN 1 Denpasar should apply scanning technique in teaching reading comprehension.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1 Conclusions

The study deals with the teaching reading comprehension through scanning technique to the first year students of SMKN 1 Denpasar in English.

The result of discussions throughout the present action of investigation can finally be concluded in this chapter as the following:

  1. The data obtained for the study which in the forms of scores showing the students’ in reading comprehension to the class I automotive students of SMKN 1 Denpasar were descriptively analyzed, that is the mean scores obtained to the subject in initial reflection scores (X0) was compared with their corresponding means scores in the reflection.
  2. The result of initial in reading comprehension administered to class I automotive students of SMKN 1 Denpasar pointed out the mean (X0) of 3.56. This mean figure clearly indicated the low ability to the class I automotive students of SMKN 1 Denpasar in reading comprehension.
  3. There were two cycles in this study and each cycle consisted of four sessions. The results of the data analysis for analysis for cycle I and Cycle II showed the mean figures of X1=4.88, X2=5.96, X3=6.48, X4=6.64, X5=6.96, X6=7.16, X7=7.28, X8=7.32. S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, and S8 respectively. By calculating the sum of mean score of each cycle could be found the result of grand mean score of cycle I and cycle II. The computation of the grand mean resulted the grand (XI) of 5.99 for cycle I and the grand mean (XII) of 7.18 for cycle II. These findings clearly showed that the mean of the initial reflection score in reading (X0 = 3.56) was much lower than both the grand mean in cycle I and the grand mean in cycle II. There was a mean difference of 1.19 (7.18 – 5.99) between cycle I and Cycle II. Clearly, the findings of the present action study revealed that teaching reading comprehension through scanning technique to class I automotive students of SMKN 1 Denpasar could progressively and significantly improve their ability in reading comprehension.
  4. The data required for the present action study were also collected by giving questionnaires to the subjects of the study. The result of the questionnaires showed the comparative percentages of 60.8%, 24.4%, 14.8% and 0% for the respective total items of the questionnaire indicating A, B, C, and D. These findings suggested that most of the students of class I automotive of SMKN 1 Denpasar showed positive attitudes; high learning motivation as well as active participation and involvement in cheerful manners in learning reading based scanning technique.
  5. The validity and the reliability of the present research finding were only limited to the extant of the undertaken research conditions and procedure, such as the number of subject and the validity and reliability of the research instrument. Hence the findings of the study should be carefully depended upon. For instance as bases in making instructional planning in the future.

5.2 Suggestion

By taking into consideration the findings of this study, then the researcher would like to offer the following things:

  1. It is suggested to the English teacher, especially the one who teaches English in SMKN 1 Denpasar, to use scanning technique in group work to help the slow students.
  2. It is wise to attempt to hold the some kind of research with different sample in the use of scanning technique in order to know whether or not this technique can significantly helps to improve student’s reading comprehension skill or not.
  3. The English teachers are suggested to be more active and creative in using and experimenting different kinds of techniques, in teaching reading comprehension because the use of varied techniques, can greatly increase the motivation of the students to do both intensive and extensive reading activities.

R E F E R E N C E S

Bell, T., & Campbell, J. 1996. Promoting good Reading Habits: The debate. The internet TESL Journal Network. USA

Chall.J. S. 2003. The Great Debate and Stage of Reading Development.;Microsoft Encarta online-Microsoft corporation USA

Dallman, Martha; Rouch ronger L; Char Lynette, Y, C. and John J De Bour. 1992. The Teaching of Reading. CBS College Publishing. New York

Dallman, J. 1982. The Teaching of Reading. Halt Rinehart and Winston, Inc. New York

Day and Bamford. 1998. Extensive Reading in the Second Language Classroom. Cambridge Smith, F. 1978, 1985, Reading. Britain: Cambridge University Press.

Darley, Glucksberg, Kanim, Kinchla, 1984, Psychology, Prentice hall, Inc.

Eskey, David E. 1986 The Oretical Foundations In Teaching Second Language Reading For Academic Purposes. Addison: Wesley Publishing Company.

Grelet, F. 1990. Developing Reading Skills. Cambridge University Press. New York

Heaton, J.B. 1988. Writing English Language Tests. Longman Group, Ltd. London

Kariasa. 2005. Improving Reading Comprehension Ability Through Pre-Questioning to the Second Year Students, Denpasar: FKIP.

Koroh. W. 2006. Teaching Reading Through Scanning Technique to the Second Year Students of SMK Saraswati: English Department. Mahasaraswati University.

Krashen, S.D. 1982. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Pergamon Press New York

Lora S.R. 1977. Developing Reading Comprehension Ability Using Cloze Procedure Technique, Singaraja: FKIP

Nuttal, Christine. 1982. Teaching reading Skill In A Foreign Language. Heinimann Education Books. London

Quinn, Virginia Nicholas. 1984. applying Psychology Teaching for Students Diversity, Holt, Rinchart and Winston Allright Reserved. USA.

Rivers, W. 1968. Teaching Foreign language Skils. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Smith Frank. 1971. Understanding Reading. Holt and Rinehart and Winson, Inc. New York

Smith, F. 1978, 1985, Reading. Britain: Cambridge University Press.

Ur. Penny. 1981. Discussions that Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Yuginarta, I.G.A. 1999. Teaching Reading Comprehension through Cloze Procedure Technique to the Second Year Students of SLTP Dwijendra Denpoasar.: English Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education. Mahasaraswati University.

A P P E N D I X



Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s


Categories


%d bloggers like this: